Jewish Lodz Before the War

When the war started in 1939, Lodz was the second largest Jewish city in Poland with 223,000 Jews living there, one third of the city’s population.

Lodz was an industrial city and its main industry was textiles. It was often referred to as ‘the Manchester of Poland’. Jews were heavily involved in this industry, at every level, from entrepreunerial factory owners to impoverished factory workers.

The vibrant Jewish community was very mixed, from deeply religious Hassidic Jews to secular socialist Bundists. Some were Zionists, others were not. There were many schools and community organisations, including welfare organisations.

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Lodz is in the centre of Poland, not far from Warsaw.

Jakub Gumplewics on his bike in Lodz just prior to the creation of the ghetto.

Abraham Kolski is among these children at a Jewish School in Lodz in 1931

Tuvia Lipson’s sister Carola on right, with two friends in Lodz in 1939.

Korn family gathering in Lodz in 1935 with Korn sisters in back row and cousins in front: Bono Wiener, Sonia Korn, Pincus Wiener and Henri Korn.

Tuvia Lipson's family in 1938